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Misdiagnosis of Toxocariasis

?What is toxocariasis

Toxocariasis is an infection transmitted from animals to humans (zoonosis) caused by the parasitic roundworms commonly

(found in the intestine of dogs (Toxocara canis) and cats (T. cati

?Who is at risk for toxocariasis

Anyone can become infected with Toxocara. Young children and owners of dogs or cats have a higher chance of becoming


Approximately 13.9% of the U.S. population has antibodies to Toxocara. This suggests that tens of millions of Americans may

.have been exposed to the Toxocara parasite

Toxocariasis symptoms

Ocular toxocariasis: Ocular Toxocariasis occurs when Toxocara larvae migrate to the eye. Symptoms and signs of ocular

.toxocariasis include vision loss, eye inflammation or damage to the retina. Typically, only one eye is affected

Visceral toxocariasis: Visceral Toxocariasis occurs when Toxocara larvae migrate to various body organs, such as the liver or

central nervous system. Symptoms of visceral toxocariasis include fever, fatigue, coughing, wheezing, or abdominal pain

For a diagnosis of Toxocariasis, the following list of conditions have been mentioned in sources as possible  alternative diagnoses to consider during the diagnostic process for Toxocariasis :

  1.   Acute HIV infection
  2.    Infectious mononucleosis
  3.    Lymphoma
  4.   Malaria
  5.   Ascariasis
  6.    Retinoblastoma
  7.  Chagas disease

The other diseases for which Toxocariasis is listed as a possible alternative diagnosis in their lists include:

1)    Clonorchiasis

2)    Fascioliasis

1)  Acute HIV infection

The stages of HIV infection are acute infection (also known as primary infection), latency and AIDS. Acute infection lasts for several weeks and may include symptoms such as fever, swollen lymph nodes, inflammation of the throat, rash, muscle pain, malaise, and mouth and esophageal sores. The latency stage involves few or no symptoms and can last anywhere from two weeks to twenty years or more, depending on the individual. AIDS, the final stage of HIV infection, is defined by low CD4+ T cell counts (fewer than 200 per microliter), various opportunistic infections, cancers and other conditions.

2)  Infectious mononucleosis

The most common symptoms of mono are:


Sore throat

Enlarged lymph nodes

Enlarged neck lymph nodes

Enlarged armpit lymph nodes


Loss of appetite




Enlarged spleen

Enlarged liver

Liver tenderness


Skin rash

Swelling around eyes


Cancer symptoms are quite varied and depend on where the cancer is located, where it has spread, and how big the tumor is. Lymphoma usually first presents with swelling in the neck, underarm, or groin. Additional swelling may occur where other lymph nodes are located such as in the spleen. In general, enlarged lymph nodes can encroach on the space of blood vessels, nerves, or the stomach, leading to swollen arms and legs, to tingling and numbness, or to feelings of being full, respectively.

Lymphoma symptoms also include nonspecific symptoms such as fever, chills, unexplained weight loss, night sweats, lethargy, and itching.

4) Malaria

In the early stages, malaria symptoms are sometimes similar to those of many other infections caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Symptoms may include:






Nausea and vomiting


Symptoms associated with roundworms in the lungs include:

coughing or gagging

vomiting roundworms

wheezing or shortness of breath

Roundworms in your intestines cause the following symptoms:



irregular stools

stomach or abdominal pain

weight loss

Some people with a large infestation may experience other symptoms, such as fatigue and fever. A major infestation can cause extreme discomfort.

6) retinoblastoma

Signs of retinoblastoma include:

A white color in the center circle of the eye (pupil) when light is shone in the eye, such as when taking a flash photograph

Eyes that appear to be looking in different directions

Eye redness

Eye swelling

Warning: This post may be scientifically invalid.

هشدار : این مطلب ممکن است دارای ایرادات و اشکالات علمی و نوشتاری و … باشد و یا ناکافی باشد .

Research by:                                 Amir Akbari

                                        Medical laboratory science student





medicalnewstoday.com/ Written by – Peter Crosta.



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درباره ی امیراکبری

سوابق مرتبط: عضو باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ( و همچنین عضو افتخاری این باشگاه) عضو شورای ناظر بر نشریات دانشگاهی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد پزشکی تهران صاحب امتیاز، مدیر مسئول و سردبیر نشریه دانشگاهی علوم آزمایشگاهی پزشکی و بالینی ( 94-95) مدیر مسئول نشریه علمی علوم پزشکی "جست و جوی سلامت" ( 95 تا کنون ) موسس و مدیر گروه علوم آزمایشگاهی پزشکی و بالینی (گروهی مستقل علمی متشکل از دانشجویان علوم پزشکی ) موسس و مدیر سایت علمی آموزشی پزشکی و سلامت MACLS (Mediclal And Clinical Laboratory Science) دانشجوی ممتاز علوم آزمایشگاهی تشخیص طبی (خبرگزاری نیویدار ) دانشجوی برتر حوزه علوم پزشکی ( خبرگزاری ایسنا ) کسب کننده عنوان نفر اوّل رشته واحد پزشکی تهران (خبرگزاری آنا ) نویسنده سری مقالات علمی و آموزشی علوم پزشکی در نشریات علمی تقدیر شده به عنوان مدیرمسئول نشریه برگزیده کشور در شاخه علوم پزشکی (خبر گزاری آنا)

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